Design and testing of a building-integrated hybrid vertical axis wind turbine (2023)

Building-integrated wind turbines are considered to be part of a group of technologies suitable for domestic micro-power generation. Darrieus and Savonius turbines work efficiently in the urban environment at low wind speed, the Savonius rotor is self-starting and produces high torque but has low efficiency, while the Darrieus rotor is very efficient but not easy to self-start. Thus, combining these rotors as a hybrid system would help improve the overall efficiency of the wind turbines. The aim of this paper was to design, fabricate and experimentally study the performance of a hybrid vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) on residential buildings. A gabled building model was designed and fabricated for use in testing the hybrid VAWT. The height of the hybrid VAWT has been reachedY= 150mm above the roof. The results obtained from the studies showed that the hybrid VAWT mounted on the building roof delivers up to 63% more energy than the pure hybrid VAWT (without building). A similar improvement in hybrid VAWT performance is also observed in speed, mechanical power and torque coefficient, with the building-integrated hybrid VAWT outperforming the bare hybrid VAWT. Thus, the results indicate that urban buildings are suitable for the installation of the hybrid VAWT.

Gwani Mohammed, Abubakar Ibrahim, Umar Mohammed Kangiwa, Joshua Benjamin Wisdom, Design and Testing of Building Integrated Hybrid Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. Volume 9, Issue 3, June 2021, pp. 69-77. doi: 10.11648/j.jeee.20210903.12

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What is Hybrid vertical axis wind turbine? ›

Abstract: Power from wind or water current can be extracted using a horizontal or vertical axis turbine. Vertical axis turbines are capable of extracting power from wind or water current regardless of the direction of flow. A hybrid turbine consists of two types of turbines on a same shaft.

What is the most efficient VAWT design? ›

The single-bladed design (Figure 3.4) is the most structurally efficient for the rotor blade, as it has the greatest blade section dimensions with all the installed blade surface area in a single beam. It is normal to shut down (park) wind turbines in very high winds, in order to protect them from damage.

What are some common designs of VAWT? ›

The two primary VAWT designs are derived from either the Darrieus (lift-driven) or the Savonius (drag-driven) rotors.

What are the 2 types of vertical axis wind turbines? ›

There are 2 types of vertical axis wind turbines: The Savonius model and the Darrieus model.

What is the main disadvantage of a vertical axis wind turbine? ›

Less Rotation Efficiency

Vertical axis wind turbines often have less rotation efficiency. This is part of the reason why vertical axis wind turbines have lower efficiency. Due to the rotor design, not all the blades on the vertical axis rotor receive incoming wind at the same time.

How can we increase the efficiency of VAWT? ›

Additionally, in order to increase the efficiency of the VAWT for a given tip speed ratio, the solidity in term of blade's number can be adjusted.

Why are VAWTs less efficient? ›

Disadvantages of VAWTs

Not all of the blades produce torque at the same time, which limits the efficiency of vertical systems in producing energy. Other blades are simply pushed along. There is also more drag on the blades when they rotate.

What should be the design consideration for wind turbine? ›

Wind Turbine Design: Basic Load Considerations. Whether you are building wind turbines or helicopters, you have to take the strength, the dynamic behaviour, and the fatigue properties of your materials and the entire assembly into consideration. Wind turbines are built to catch the wind's kinetic (motion) energy.

What is the maximum efficiency of vertical axis wind turbine? ›

A maximum efficiency of 19.101% was achieved and was used as the open rotor design. A series of curved upstream deflectors were then evaluated in terms of efficiency improvements against the original open rotor design.

What factors affect vertical axis wind turbine performance? ›

The most common factors are the effect of number of blades, the effect of blade profile, the effect of aspect ratio, the effect of surface roughness and the effect of Reynolds number [16-20]. One of the factors affecting the performance of vertical axis wind turbine will be the main focused in this paper.

What is the main function of a vertical axis wind turbine VAWT? ›

They rely on the yaw system to orientate the rotor in order to capture wind. Due to this difference in operation mechanism, vertical axis wind turbines can be used to generate power even in unstable weather conditions such as turbulent, gusty wind. They also function well in mountain and coastal areas.

How to build a wind turbine step by step? ›

  1. Step 1: Download the materials and print the wind turbine cutout.
  2. Step 2: Cut out the tower and blades.
  3. Step 3: Color the tower and blades.
  4. Step 4: Cut out slots on the tower.
  5. Step 5: Fold the tower.
  6. Step 6: Fold the blades.
  7. Step 7: Attach the blades to the tower.
  8. Want to learn more about wind energy?
14 Jun 2016

How many blades are best for a vertical wind turbine? ›

Due its reduced drag, a one-blade design is the optimal number for maximum efficiency. However, a single blade causes imbalance and, hence, is not practical [10]. A number of blades greater than three produces greater wind resistance, lower power generation and, therefore, is less efficient than three-blade turbines.

How much does a vertical axis wind turbine cost? ›

The costs for a utility scale wind turbine range from about $1.3 million to $2.2 million per MW of nameplate capacity installed.

Which is more efficient VAWT or HAWT? ›

HAWT have a greater efficiency then VAWT when extracting energy from the wind force due to its design that allows it to ex-tract the energy through the full rotation of the blades when placed under consistent wind flow [9] . It is also immune to backtracking effect [10]. ...

What are some advantages of a vertical axis wind turbine? ›

Traditional VAWT Advantages

Low production cost as compared to horizontal axis wind turbines. As there is no need of pointing turbine in wind direction to be efficient so yaw drive and pitch mechanism is not needed. Easy installation as compared to other wind turbine. Easy to transport from one place to other.

Why don't we use vertical wind turbines? ›

Because the rotors tend to be shorter, vertical turbines only have access to lower wind speeds and are more vulnerable to turbulent air flows from buildings and trees.

What are 2 negatives of wind turbines? ›

On the cons side, wind turbines can be noisy and unappealing aesthetically, and can sometimes adversely impact the physical environment around them. Similar to solar power, wind power is also intermittent, meaning that turbines are reliant on weather and therefore aren't capable of generating electricity 24/7.

What are three negative effects of wind turbines? ›

There also some *cons* when it comes to wind energy:

Wind turbines are a potential threat to wildlife such as birds and bats. Deforestation to set up a wind farm creates an environmental impact. Noise is a complaint with many wind farms that are close to communities. Some people find wind farms to be unsightly.

What 3 factors determine how effective a wind turbine will be? ›

The three main factors that influence power output are: wind speed, air density, and blade radius. Wind turbines need to be in areas with a lot of wind on a regular basis, which is more important than having occasional high winds.

What is tip speed ratio of VAWT? ›

The amount of revolution of the turbine which is required to get a converged solution for a VAWT operating at a moderate tip speed ratio of 4.5 and sets this as a convergence criterion for all subsequent simulations [8].

What were the 3 most important things to make a successful wind turbine? ›

There are three initial factors to consider in terms of value: (1) installed cost; (2) estimated annual power production; and (3) confidence in the estimated annual power production.

Why is HAWT better than VAWT? ›

VAWTs are typically more compact and operate at lower elevations, making them less visually intrusive. However, VAWTs might have issues, some say, with reliable self-start in low wind speeds and also with less efficient power production than HAWTs (the low rotation speeds are quiet but not necessarily efficient).

Why are VAWTs not quite as efficient in using the wind's force to generate electricity? ›

VAWTs tend not to be as efficient due to backtracking because their blades move in the same direction as the wind [27]. On every rotation a blade makes it must travel back into the wind before being pushed back around [27].

What are the factors to be considered in design of a turbine? ›

These factors includes, wind speed, turbine geometry, blades geometry, angle of attack, chord length, and other factors like surface roughness of blades and thickness of blades.

How are wind turbines inspected? ›

Turbines are turned off for manual inspections, and the blades are stopped in the six o'clock position. Once the team ascends the tower, they look for damage and knock on the blades to determine the condition of the materials.

What four variables are required in determining the wind classification of a building? ›

To determine the wind classification for your domestic building site you must consider 4 factors: the Region, the Terrain Category, a Shielding Factor and the Topography. This information is to be used as an approximate guide for residential structures only.

What is the minimum wind speed for a vertical wind turbine? ›

Wind turbines require:

a minimum wind speed (generally 12-14 km/h) to begin turning and generate electricity. strong winds (50-60 km/h) to generate at full capacity. winds of less than 90 km/h; beyond that speed, the turbines must be stopped to avoid damage.

What are the parameters that affect the wind turbine performance? ›

The parameters that affect the performance of vertical axis wind turbines include the airfoil shape of the blade, structural design, and Reynolds number, orientation of each blade, number of blades, aspect ratio, chord-to-rotor radius ratio, the blade coning angle, blade pitch angle, height-to-radius ratio, and tower ...

Which of the feature in vertical axis turbine reduces their costing? ›

For instance, VAWT designs have a lower center of gravity, which would reduce the platform costs.

What are vertical axis wind turbines used for? ›

They rely on the yaw system to orientate the rotor in order to capture wind. Due to this difference in operation mechanism, vertical axis wind turbines can be used to generate power even in unstable weather conditions such as turbulent, gusty wind. They also function well in mountain and coastal areas.

What is the difference between HAWT and VAWT? ›

HAWT is the abbreviation used for horizontal axis wind turbine. VAWT is the abbreviation used to denote the vertical axis wind turbine. For the horizontal axis wind turbine, the axis of rotation of turbine is parallel to the wind stream.

Which is better HAWT or VAWT? ›

VAWTs are typically more compact and operate at lower elevations, making them less visually intrusive. However, VAWTs might have issues, some say, with reliable self-start in low wind speeds and also with less efficient power production than HAWTs (the low rotation speeds are quiet but not necessarily efficient).

How efficient is vertical axis wind turbine? ›

Computer modelling suggests that wind farms constructed using vertical-axis wind turbines are 15% more efficient than conventional horizontal axis wind turbines as they generate less turbulence.

Why are VAWTs less efficient than Hawts? ›

Efficiency – When the wind blows on the blades of a HAWT, all of them contribute to energy production. When wind blows on a vertical-axis turbine, only a fraction of the blades generate torque while the other parts merely 'go along for the ride'. The result is comparably reduced efficiency in power generation.

What are VAWT blades made of? ›

Aluminum blades fabricated by extrusion and bending are the most common type of VAWT materials. The early blades of Darrieus type VAWTs were made from stretches and formed steel sheets or from helicopter like combinations of aluminum alloy extrusions and fiberglass.

Why is the VAWT not popular? ›

Disadvantages of VAWTs

Not all of the blades produce torque at the same time, which limits the efficiency of vertical systems in producing energy. Other blades are simply pushed along. There is also more drag on the blades when they rotate.

How noisy are vertical wind turbines? ›

As they are vertical axis wind turbines their average dB level is lower at around 32 dB at 8 m/s. It is unlikely that someone nearby could hear the wind turbine over the sound of the surrounding wind at this level!

What is the best voltage for a wind turbine? ›

A modern wind turbine is often equipped with a transformer stepping up the generator terminal voltage, usually a voltage below 1 kV (E.g. 575 or 690 V), to a medium voltage around 20-30 kV, for the local electrical connection within a wind farm (distribution level).

What is the best blade pitch for wind turbines? ›

Thus, pitch angle is optimum for a wind turbine when the operating velocity is 7 m/s for optimum power generation.


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