Indian classical music (2023)


Basic concepts of Indian classical music

Patti is the scale in which the performer sings his songs/ragas. The table below shows the different scales that can be used. The Marathi script is in the form of Pandhri (meaning white) or Kali (meaning black). The next part is the equivalent number in Marathi/Hindu. The following table shows pattis with equivalent western markings.

Indian scale

Western equivalent

Safed 1 (white 1)


Kali 1 (black 1)


Safed 2 (white 2)


Kali 2 (black 2)


Safed 3 (white 3)


Safed 4 (white 4)


Kali 3 (black 3)


Safed 5 (white 5)


Kali 4 (Black 4)


Safed 6 (White 6)


Kali 5 (Black 5)


Safed 7 (White 7)


#- Read like Sharp
b- Read like Flat

Shudhha, Achal, Komal i Teevra Swar

Achala Swar:Shadja and Pancham notes are fixed in the scale. These are called Achal swara (immovable).

Vikrut Swar:Other notes, tj. Rishabh, Gandhar, Madhyam, Dhaivat i Nishad su Vikrut (pokretni).

Komal Swar:In Vikrut swaras Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat, Nishad can move below that place of shuddha in the scale. They are called komal (soft or flat). They are shown with a small horizontal line below the note.

Teevra Swar:Only Madhyam can become vikrut by going one note above shuddha Madhyam. It is called teevra (Sharp). It is shown by a small vertical line above the note.

Shadja - are
Rishabh - Re
Gandhar - Ga
Pancham - Pa
Dhaivat - Dha
Nishad - Yes

In Indian classical music, 3 saptaks (octaves) are commonly used.

Day of the week:When a set of seven notes is played in sequence, it is called Saptak (ie Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni)

Madhya Saptak:The normal tone of the human voice, which is neither high nor low. It is called Maddhya Saptak (Middle Octave). This has no symbol in the musical notation.

This week:The one higher than Maddhya Saptak is Taar saptak (High). The notes are high and sharp. This is shown by a dot above the note. Two dots above the note imply a note an octave higher than Taar Saptak, i.e. Ati Taar Saptak.

Mandra week:The one below Maddhya Saptak is called Mandra saptak (Lower). The notes of this octave are sung or played in a low deep tone. This consists of a saptaka which is below the lower Sa Maddhya Saptaka. The notes of this saptak are marked with a dot below the note.

It is possible in the case of stringed instruments such as the sitar to go an octave lower than the Mandra saptak. He is known as Ati Mandra Saptak. The notes of this saptak are marked with two dots below. In the saptak (scale) Sa is repeated after Ni. The frequency of the second Sa is twice as high as the frequency of the first Sa. The second Sa is designated as Taar Shadja. From this Taar Shadja the same saptak is repeated (but this time twice as often as the respective swara. Then it is called taar Saptak.)

Since Indian classical music is a modal music based on the relationships between fixed pitch, tonic and successive notes. The tonic must be heard continuously. Sustained accompaniment of the tonic allows the performer to check his voice to avoid dissonance. That constant tonic gives the instrument Taanpura. It has four or sometimes 5/6 strings. The sound is achieved (explained for the four string taanpura) by playing

Indian classical music (1)Indian classical music (2)iIndian classical music (3)Indian classical music (4)(If a particular raag does not include Pancham but has Madhyam eg Raag Marwa or Malkauns)

Sometimes it is set to

Indian classical music (5)orIndian classical music (6)ako raag ima திரிய்டை Dhaivata ili Nishada.

According to Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860–1936), one of the most influential musicologists in the field of North Indian classical music in the twentieth century, each of the several traditional ragas is based on, or is a variation of, ten basic thaats, or musical scales or frameworks. The ten thaats are Bilawal, Kalyan, Khamaj, Bhairav, Poorvi, Marwa, Kafi, Asavari, Bhairavi and Todi; if we were to pick a raga at random, it should be possible to detect that it is based on one or the other of these thaats. For example, ragas Shri and Puriya Dhanashri are based on Poorvi thaat, Malkauns on Bhairavi and Darbari Kanada on Asvari thaat. It is important to point out that Bhatkande's thaat-raga theory is not entirely accurate, but it is nonetheless an important classificatory tool by which to order and make sense of the bewildering array of ragas; and is also a useful tool in spreading music to students.

There are certain rules for these Thaats.

  1. Thaat must have seven notes out of twelve notes [Seven Shuddhas, four komals (Re, Ga, Dha, Ni), one teevra (Ma)], placed in ascending order. Both forms of notes can be used.

  2. Thaat ima samo Aarohu.

  3. Thaats are not sung but raags produced from Thaats are sung.

  4. Thaati su nazvani po popularnom raagu tog Thaata. For example, Bhairavi je popular raag, a thaat raaga Bhairavi je nazvan po raagu.

The 10 basic thaats according to the Bhatkhande system are as follows

  1. Bilawal:

    Bilawal is the most basic of all the ten taats. All swars in thaat are shuddha or all swars in natural scale. Bilawal as a raag is not translated today, but a small variation of the raag called Alahaiya Bilawal is very common. This is a morning raag and its vivid descriptions create a rich, sensual ambience to match its performance.

    Raags u Bilawal Thaatu: Deskar, Haunsdhwani, Variations of Bilawal.

  2. Khamaz:

    Next thaat is Khamaj which can be obtained by replacing Shuddha Nishad of Bilawal with Komal Nishad. The raags of this thaat are full of Shringar Ras (romantic) hence this raag is mostly performed in light classical thumris, tappa, horis, kajris etc. Its pictorial descriptions in existing texts are sensual and even today, raag Khamaj is considered 'flirty' a girl. There is another theory that posits that in the past the Khamaj scale found its way into the Ch'in music of late medieval China.

    Raags u Khamaj Thaatu: Rageshree, Jhinjhoti, Des, Tilak Kamod, Jaijaiwanti, Khambavati etc.

  3. Kava:

    Kafi thaat is used by Komal Gandhar and Komal Nishad. So it basically adds Komala Gandhara to Khamaj Thaat. raag Kafi is one of the oldest raagas and its intervals are described as the basic scale of Natyashastra. Therefore, in ancient and medieval times Kafi was considered a natural scale. Kafi is late evening wear and is said to convey a spring mood.

    Raags u Kafi Thaatu: Dhanashree, Dhani, Bhimpalasi, Pilu, Megh Malhar, Bageshree etc.

  4. Asavari:

    Add Komal Dhaivat to Kafi thaat and you get Asavari Thaat. raag Asavari is full of tyaga, a mood of renunciation and sacrifice as well as pathos. It is best suited for late morning. However, important evening/night wears like Darbari and Adana also use asavari notes which have different styles, accent points and embellishments.

    Raags u Asavari Thaatu: Asavari, Desi, Darbari, Adana, Jaunpuri etc.

  5. Bhairavi:

    Bhairavi koristi sve komal swars, Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat, Nishad. Kada pjevaju skrambe u Bhairavi raagu, khveresi ipak take freedom to use svih 12 swarova. Bhairavi raag je ime poshaktior the female aspect of the cosmic life force, which is personified as the consort of Lord Shiva. Bhairavi is a powerful raaga filled with devotion and compassion. Bhairavi is actually performed early in the morning in a calm, serious and occasionally sad mood. It is traditionally performed as the last point of the program, due to its unique fullness of feeling as well as the wide range of tonal combinations. Figuratively, Bhairavi is represented in a female form, as the wife of Bhairava.

    Raags u Bhairavi Thaatu: Malkauns, Bilaskhani Todi, Bhupali Todi, Kaunsi Kanada etc.

  6. Bhairava:

    Bhairav ​​​​thaat raags are used by Komal Rishabh and Komal Dhaivat. Bhairav ​​​​is one of the names of Lord Shiva, especially in his powerful form as a naked ascetic with tangled locks and a body smeared with ashes. Raag also has some of these masculine and sketchy attributes in its form and composition. The raag itself is extremely broad and allows for a huge number of note combinations and a wide range of emotional qualities from courage to peace. You can see a lot of variations on raag Bhairava including (but not limited to) Ahir Bhairava, Alam Bhairava, Anand Bhairava, Bairagi Bhairava, Beehada Bhairava, Bhavmata Bhairava, Devata Bhairava, Gauri Bhairava, Nat Bhairava, Shivmata Bhairava. This raaga is usually performed in a devotional mood in the early hours of the morning. The vibrations of the notes in Bhairav ​​are said to cleanse the entire mind. The pictorial depictions of raaga Bhairava in ancient texts are austere but also awe-inspiring.

    Raags u Bhairav ​​Thaatu: Ramkali, Gunkari, Meghranjani, Jogiya, Bhairav ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ or

  7. Kalyan :

    Kalyan thaat consists of an important group of evening raagas. Characterized by teevra Madhyam, this thaat literally means good fortune. It is considered a raga that seeks blessings and soothes. As a result, it is performed in the evening at the beginning of the concert. This outfit creates the feeling of the evening unfolding. This thaat is huge and consists of many variations of the basic kalyan thaat including (but not limited to) raags like Shuddha Kalyan, Shyam Kalyan, Yaman Kalyan, Anandi Kalyan, Khem Kalyan (Haunsdhwani + Yaman), Savani Kalyan etc.

    Raags u Kalyan Thaatu: Yaman, Bhupali, Hindol, Kedar, Kamod, itd.

  8. Marwa:

    Marwa thaat is obtained by adding komal Rishabh to Kalyan thaat. The mood of the Marwa family is strong and easily recognisable. Shadja remains in shadow form until the very end, where she almost comes as a surprise. komal Rishabh and shuddha Dhaivat are very important. The overall mood of this raaga is sunset where night approaches much faster than in northern latitudes. The encroaching darkness evokes a sense of anxiety and solemn anticipation in many observers.

    Raags for Mrs. Thaatu: Marwa, Puriya, Bhatiyaar, Bibhas, Sohoni etc.

  9. Poorvi:

    Poorvi thaat adds komal to Dhaivat Marwa thaat. These thaat raags usually contain komal Rishabh, shuddha Gandhar and Shuddha Nishad along with teevra Madhyam, the note that distinguishes the evening from the morning raags (dawn and sunset). Thaat raag Poorvi is deeply serious and mysterious in nature and is performed at the time of sunset. Pictorial depictions in early texts often mention the demeanor, grace and charm of Poorvi.

    Raags u Poorvi Thaatu: Puriya Dhanashree, Gauri, Shree, Paraj, Basant etc.

  10. Today:

    Todi is the king of all tatas. Todi paintings almost always show a petite, beautiful woman, holding a veena, with a deer around her, standing in a beautiful, lush green forest. Todi represents a mood of rapturous adoration with a tender feeling of love and is traditionally performed in the late morning hours.

    Raags u Todi Thaat: Miyan Ki Todi, Gujari Todi, Madhuvanti, Multani etc.

Raag is the backbone of Indian classical music. The word raag comes from the Sanskrit word "Ranj" which means to delight, to make happy and to satisfy. It should be clarified here that not all raagas project a happy mood. Raag can produce different moods like Shant (cheerfulness), Shrungaar (erotic), Bhakti (devotion to God), Veer (gallantry, courage, aggressiveness).

A raag is neither a scale nor a mode. However, it is a scientific, precise, subtle and aesthetic melodic form with its distinctive ascending and descending movement consisting of either a whole octave or a sequence of five or six notes. The omission of a sharp or dissonant note, or the emphasis on a particular note, or the transition from one note to another, and the use of microtones along with other subtleties, distinguish one raaga from another.

A raag has its main mood such as serenity, devotion, eroticism, loneliness, pathos, heroism, etc. Each raag is associated, according to its mood, with a certain time of day, night or season. Improvisation is an essential feature of Indian music, depending on the imagination and creativity of the artist; a great artist can communicate and instill in his listener the mood of a raag.

Each melodic structure of a raaga has something akin to a distinct personality that is subject to the prevailing mood. Early Indian writers on music developed this idea further and gave the ragas the status of minor deities, with names derived from various sources, often indicating origin or association with individual ragas. In theoretical works on music, each raag is described by a short verse formula, which allowed the artist to visualize his essential personality during meditation before performance.

There are 3 Raag bhed (vrste Raag)

  1. Shuddha Raag: A raag in which even if non-present notes are used, its nature and form do not change.

  2. Chhayalag Raag : A raag in which if some notes not present in it are used, the nature and form changes.

  3. Sankeerna Raag : A raag in which there is a combination of two or more raags.

Terms that describe the properties of a Raag

Request:The most prominent note of a raag that is emphasized in a raag and is used very often.

Samvaadi:The second most important note of the raag. It was used less than the vaadi but more than the other notes of the raag. This is the fourth or fifth note from Vaadi.

Anuvaadi:Ostale note raaga (osim Vaadi i Samvaadi).

To live :The meaning of vivadi is "one who produces dissonance", a note not present in the raag. But still capable singers use vivadi swar in a raag in such a way that it enhances the beauty of the raag. This is done very rarely.
For example, Teevra Madhyam u Raag Bihagu sinimarala se Vivadi, ali nadana je gotovo postala important aspect of Raag Bihaga.

love:Rising notes. Here, each note is higher than the previous note.
Example: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni

Open:Descent of notes. Here, each note is lower than the previous one.
Example: Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa

Pakad:A small group of notes describing the unique features of a raag.

Every:Daje broj nota u Aarohi kao i Avarohi raaga. Audav ima 5 nota. Shadav ima 6 nota, a Sampoorna 7 nota. Stoga postivo 9 jaatija tadavenih na Audavu, Shadavu, Sampoorni u Aarohi i Avarohi.

And:A system of classifying ragas into different groups. A set of seven notes or scales that can produce a raag. At present, Hindustani classical music 10 has adopted this classification of raagas (as described in the previous article.

Hot:Each Raag has a specific time in which it can be performed. This is because those notes should be more effective at that particular time.

Ras :The emotion that each raag evokes. Depending on the notes used in the raag, it will invoke a ras.

Musical terms that refer to the presentation of a song in a vocal style

Sthayee:The first part of the composition. It mainly develops in the lower and middle octave.

Antaraa:The second part of the composition. It develops in a middle or higher note.

Looks like:The first line of the composition.

A gradual exposition of the Raag emphasizing Vaadi, Samvaadi and other salient features of the Raag in a slow tempo is known as Alaap.

The word alaap means dialogue or conversation. Alaap is a dialogue between the musician and the raag. Alaap reflects depth, temperament, creativity andexercisemusicians.

In alaap, the musician gradually improvises each note. Starting from lower octave and in slow tempo and techniques like kana swar and meend etc. Alaap is sung at the beginning of the raag at the time of performance. This is also known as Vistaar. When the musician starts performing the Bada Khayal / Chotaa Khayaal (bandish), the tabla or any other percussion instrument joins. Alaap is used again with the composition, this time with the rhythm as well. This alaap is a bit faster and more rhythmic.

Sometimes the words of the song are also improvised with notes. This is known as Bol Alaap.

Alaap is usually sung in Aakaar i.e. without pronouncing the syllables just using the "aa" vowel sound. Sometimes syllables like teri, Nom, Tom are also used for chanting alap, this type of chanting is called Dhrupad and Dhamaar. It is said that Tansen sang in nom, tom and Amir Khusro first introduced khayal gayaki to Indian classical music.

Improvising and expanding the weaving of notes at a fast pace is taan. Taanis are highly technical and show training, practice and dexterity in weaving complicated note patterns with variations in rhythm. Taans are also sung in Akaar. Speed ​​is an important factor in taana.

Some important types of taan

Bol Taan:Taan can also be sung using the word Cheez (composition). This is a difficult type of taan because in this correct pronunciation, beauty of words, meaning of composition, everything has to be considered.

Shuddha/Sapat (Ravno) Taan :The notes are arranged in one or more octaves.

Taan sizes:Notes do not stay in order. It is of a complicated nature.

Mishra Tan:A combination of the above two taans.

Gamak Taan:Gamak is a technique that adds force to the notes and repeats each note at least twice.

Also there are many types of taana koji called Ladant taan, Zatkaa taan, Gitkari taan, Jabde ki taan, Sarok Taan, Halak Taan, Palat taan.

Although the terms can be explained, a raag is a tonal complex. The listener has to listen to several pieces of the raag to recognize it. Each raag is presented differently depending on the Gharana of the artist, the artist's own nature and his/her mood at the time, also the form in which he/she chooses to perform the raag i.e. whether it is Khayal, Dhrupad, Thummri, Bhajan etc. The presentation is also different in the case of vocal and instrumental music. This is why Indian classical music can only be learned properly through listening and repetition.

In Hindustani classical music, each raag is performed only at a specific time. The timing of the raaga depends on the vaadi swar and anuvadi swars. This is because each raag with its own special swara is more effective if performed at a specific time. It should enhance the ras (mood) of the raag that the artist is responsible for evoking.

But, some raags are seasonal in nature. For example, raags belonging to the Malhar category can be sung at any time during the monsoon season. Traditional associations with respect to the season are - Monsoon - Raag Megh, Autumn - Raag Bhairav, Winter - Raag Malkauns, Spring - Raag Hindol.

24 hours in a day are divided into 2 parts

  1. 00:00 AM to 12:00 AM - This is called Poorva Bhaag and the songs sung during this period are called poorva raags.

  2. 12 PM to 00:00 AM - This is called Uttar Bhaag and the raags in this period are called uttar raags.

The saptak (octave) part from Sa to Ma (Sa Re Ga Ma) is called poorvang (earlier part) of the raag and from Ma to taar saptak Sa (Pa Dha Ni Sa) is called uttarang (later part) of the raag.

Poorvang Vaadi raag :Raags in which the vaadi swar lies in the poorvang are called poorvang vaadi raag. These words are performed on the poorva bhag dana ie from 12 noon to 12 noon

Uttarang Vaadi Raag:Raags in which vaadi swar lies in uttarandu are called uttarangi vaadi raag. These songs are sung in the uttar bhaag of the day, i.e. from 12 noon to midnight

So if we know the vaadi swar raag, we can estimate the time when the raag will be displayed. Raags in Hindustani classical music are divided into 3 categories considering their swar (notes) and samay (time)

1. Raag's Komal Rishabhom and Komal Dhaivat

These raagas are called sandhi prakash (time of dawn and dusk) raagas and fall into two categories
a : pratah kaali sandhi prakash raag : raage koje se pjevaju u zoru
b : saayam kaali sandhi prakash raag : songs sung at dusk
U sandhi prakash raags Madhyam igra very important role. Most pratah kaali sandhi prakash raaga (vrijeme zore) contains shuddha Madhyam. E.g. Raag Bhairav. Most of the sayam kaali sanhdi prakash raagova (vrijeme sumraka) kontani teevra ma. E.g. Raag Marwa.

Also, u most sandhi prakash raagova, Rishabh je komal, a Gandhar, Nishad su shuddha. Dhaivat može biti nježan ili shuddha.

2. Raags sa Shuddha Rishabhom i Shuddha Dhaivatom

The time these raagas are performed is after the sandhi prakash raaga. They mainly belong to Kalyan, Bilawal, Khamaj thaat.

After the pratah kaali sandhi prakash raags, the influence of shuddha Rishabha and shuddha Dhaivat starts to grow. Therefore, raags of this category are performed from 7.00 am to 10.00 am and from 7.00 pm to 10.00 pm. In this category Gandhar is essentially shuddha.

In the morning from 7.00 to 10.00 Shuddha Madhyam category is highlighted eg Bilawal, Deskar
In the evening from 7.00 to 10.00 the category Teevra Madhyam je Pratishta, npr. Yaman, Bhoopali
3. Raag's Komal Gandharom i Komal Nishadom

These songs are sung after Shuddha Rishabh and Shuddha Dhaivat songs. They are sung from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. E.g. Asavari, Jaunpuri and night 10.00 to dawn 4.00 E.g. Bageshree, Jaijaivanti, Malkauns. In these raags Gandhar will surely be komal. Rishabh and Dhaivat can be Shuddha or Komal.

Importance of Madhyama in relation to raaga timing.

Váveje je raags shuddha Madhyam u jutarnjim satima prominent. U ragama s Komal Rishabhom i Komal Dhaivatom, ako je shuddha Madhyam prominent, they are called Pratah Kaalin Sandhi Prakash raag.

In the evening raags teevra Madhyam is highlighted. So in the evening with ragas like Poorvi, Shree, Multaani, teevra Madhyam comes into use which lasts till the 2nd prahara of the night. At this time with ragas like Bihaag, shuddha Madhyam comes into prominence.

U pratah kaali sandhi prakash raag, raagi sa Shuddha Madhyam (Raag Bhairav, Kalingada) come prvi, a natim raagi s oba Madhyama (Raag Ramkali, Lalit).

Nakon toga je vrijeme za pjevanje raaga sa Shuddha Rishaabhom i Shuddha Dhaivatom. Shuddha Madhyam je prominent u ovim ragama (Raag Bilawal). Then comes the time for Komal Gandhar raags. U ovome se koristente oba Madhyama. U nekima od nijh Shuddha Madhyam takes the prominent place, dok u udram Teevra Madhyam takes the prominent place.

  1. Thaats ili vage se produkte od 12 swarova - Shuddha, Komal, Teevra. Raagi belongs to thaatima.

  2. There must be seven notes in a thaat Raag must have at least five notes.

  3. In a thaat the seven notes must be in order, but in a raag the notes can be in any order.

  4. Thaat has only Aaroha (rising notes). A raag must have Aaroha (ascending notes) as well as Avaroha (descending notes).

  5. It is not necessary for the thaat to be melodious as thaats are not sung but the raag must be melodious.

  6. It doesn't express feelings. A raag must express a mood.

  7. Thaati nejmu Vaadi ili Samvaadi. Raag mora imati Vaadi i Samvaadi.

  8. Thaati su nazvani po popularnom raagu koji pripada tom Thaatu

To make the raag display more beautiful and diverse, different decorative patterns are used. In addition to the theory, each sample contains an audio track. Click on the sound symbol to download the audio file. I thank Smt. Veena Sahasrabuddhe for allowing me to use her audio files which outline each alankar very nicely. The Veeenatai website is located at you can find a series of demonstrations of her lectures.

Alankar:Alankar literally means ornaments or worships. A specific melodic presentation in sequence that follows a pattern is called alankar. For example: "SaReGa, ReGaMa, GaMaPa, MaPaDha, PaDhaNi DaNiSa". This phrase is part of an alankara in which three notes are used one after the other at any time.

Gamak:These are many ways to decorate banknotes. There are fifteen types of hammocks in the old books.Indian classical music (7)

  • Kampita - Shake

  • Andolita - Swing

  • Aaghaat - Strike

  • You choose - Whipple

  • Tribhinna - Trostruko

  • Gumphita - threaded

  • Float - Flowing

  • Mixed - mixed

  • Plate - Spiral

  • Sphurita - pulsating

  • Alive - Damn

  • Leen - Absorption

  • Mudrita - Otisak

  • Ullhasit - Happy

  • Naamita - Gift

Many of these gamakas are still used in Karnataka music under different names. However, today in North Indian music the strong vibrating of the notes is called Gamak. This is an important technique in Dhrupad and often in Bada Khayal chanting.

Kan ili Sparsh Swar:A kan means a small particle of an adjacent note that is used alongside the main note. It can be higher or lower than the main note.Indian classical music (8)

walls:It is a short taan of three or four notes. It is sung very quickly.Indian classical music (9)

Khatkaa:Two or more notes sung with a jerk. It is a combination of Khan and Murki.Indian classical music (10)

means:Stretching or prolonging the sound from one note to another. This technique maintains the continuity of the sound. Meend brings continuous flow, softness and continuity.Indian classical music (11)

Each raag evokes a certain mood. For example, the raag Darbaari Kannada is regal, dignified and majestic in its appearance. The melodies of this raag tend to be sung in a lower register, the tempo is slow, and the melodic phrases are complex.

All these effects can be explained by the ancient theory of Rasa and Bhava. Ras can be said as experience and Bhav as expression.

Eight feelings are mentioned in Bharat Natya Shastra.

  • Shringaar (Romantic/Erotic)

  • Veer (Heroic)

  • Hassya (strip)

  • Karuna (pathos)

  • Roudra (angry)

  • Bhayanak (terrifying)

  • Bibhatsa (odvratan)

  • Adbhut (predivno)

Later another ras Shant (tranquil, calm) was added as the 9th Ras collectively called "Navras". However, after the 15th century Bhakti (piety) Ras became widely accepted and popular in the original Ras. There is an opinion that Bhakti and Shanta ras are one and the same.

It also mentions different notes to create different moods, such as Madhyam - humorous, Pancham - erotic, Shadja - heroic, Rishabh - wrathful and so on.

  1. Raag mora pripadati thaatu

  2. It must be melodious in nature.

  3. It consists of at least five notes.

  4. Raag must have Aaroha as well as Avaroha

  5. Every raag has a Sa note present.

  6. Each raag has a Madhyam and/or a Pancham. Both these notes together cannot be absent on a raag.

  7. Two forms of the same note such as Shuddha Gandhar and Komal Gandhar cannot follow each other (but there are exceptions to this rule). For example, Raag Lalit takes Shuddha Madhyama and Teevra Madhyama one after the other, Raag Jog takes Shuddha Gandhara and Komala Gandhara one after the other.

Sometimes some raags sound almost similar but still there is a slight difference in them. These differences can be seen as follows:

  1. Similar Thaat (scale) and melodic configuration:

    Sometimes a raag is separated from another only by emphasizing a particular note in one of them. For example, the only difference between raag Hameer and raag Hameer Kalyaan is that the emphasis is on Shuddha Nishad in Hamir Kalyan.

  2. Different Thaat (scale) but similar melodic configuration

    In some songs, the melodic structure and the mood they represent are almost the same, but one or two notes differ in their format, ie. Komal or Shuddha or Teevra. For example, in Asavar and Komal Rishabh Asavar the only difference is that later Komal Rishabh is used instead of Shuddha Rishabh. Therefore, raags are considered completely different.

  3. Identical Thaat (scale) but different melodic configuration

    These raags are a challenge for the performer. As the scale remains the same, they are separated only on the basis of melodic configuration. There are subtle differences made in the form of meenda, use of a particular musical phrase, emphasis on particular notes etc. For example Raag Goud Saarang and Raag Chhayanat.

  4. Partial similarity

    There is almost no chance of confusion here. This is the case of those raagas derived from two different raagas where one tetra chord is derived from one raaga and the next from some other major raaga. For example, Raag Ahir Bhairav ​​​​is derived from Bhairav ​​​​which is the main raag and Kafi. The similarity with Kafi is limited only to the lower tetrachord (poorvanga).

Alpatva (insignificance) and Bahutva (dominance)

Bahutva: This is shown in two ways

  • By repeatedly chanting a note called abhyaas, i

  • By singing a note longer. This is called Aalanghan (grasping)

Bahutva se odnosi na Vaadi i Samvaadi raaga, kao i druge note raaga koje su prozendite u prezentatiji tog raaga.

Alpatva : This is again done in two ways.

  • By lack of repetition or Anabhyas

  • Just a short touch of a note or langhan. A swar which is completely omitted in aroha or avroha, Langhan gets alpatva.

For example: in Raag Bihag notes Rishabh and Dhaivat get alpatva from langhan as they are completely left out in Aaroha. However, these swars are present in avroha, but the importance for these swars is again less, ie in this raag there is no "nyas" on these swars, that's why these swars are given alpatva by anabhya.

Avirbhaav and Tirobhaav

Since a musician uses different combinations of notes in the development of a raag, there is always a danger that the audience may feel that he is hijacking the notes of another raag that uses similar combinations.

When the raag being presented is clearly defined, it is called Aavirbhaav.

On the other hand, when the raag is deliberately and skillfully hidden, it is called Tirobhav. This pretense is used as an artistic device.

This process of Avirbhaava and Tirobhaava, an almost sensual play of creating confusion and resolving it with a clear statement of the raag, makes the raag stand out even more brightly.

Jod Raag (Compound Raag)

The basic principle when combining two raagas is that the component raagas complement each other. The emotional effect of their combination should be pleasant, not disturbing, and not just for intellectual curiosity. There are at least two forms of Jod raag.

  1. One raag takes precedence over the other. For example, in Raag Basant Bahaar, Basant is considered as the main raag with which Raag Bahaar is combined.

  2. Another way of combining is to use the notes of one raag and the Chalan (melodic movement) of another. For example, in Raag Megh Malhar, the notes belonging to Raag Saarang are used and the raag is sung in the manner used by the Malhaar group.

There are three ways in which these cloths are created

  1. A combination of Aaroha of one raag and Avaroha of another.

  2. Having each tetrachord composed of the notes of a different raaga (either shuddha or vikrit).

  3. Use phrases from two or more phrases and alternate them.

In terms of certain raagas we see names of Hindu deities like Kedaar, Bhairav, Gouri, Durga.

Some raagas like Ahiris, Asavaris, Gujars indicate a connection with certain tribes that have similar names and could have been derived from tribal melodies.

Some names refer to specific places. For example Marwa, Jaunpuri, Pahadi. These raags may have originated from the folk tunes of those regions.

The fourth group bears the names of its creators. Raagas like Miya ki Malhar, Miya ki Todi are attributed to Miya Taansen. While Raag Bilaskhani Todi is said to be created by his son Bilaskhan. Raag Darbaari Kannada is said to be derived from the Carnatic version of Kannada, but is sung in darbars before kings for evening concerts. Raaga Gorakh Kalyana should create Gorakh Naath to bring back his guru. Many artists have created their own cloths. For eg Pt Bhimsen Joshi he made Raag Kalashree which is a combination of Kalawati and Bageshree.

The following is the order in which the various components of a raag are presented in a mehefil (concert)

Alternative 1

Alternative 2


  1. Vilambit alaap presented in sections from low to high

  2. Maddhya alaap divided into similar parts

  3. Drut alaap divided into similar parts


Brief review of a raag usually in aakaar.

Composition set to taal

  1. Sthaayi

  2. Antaraa


  1. Sthaayi

  2. Antaraa

Abundant Band

Alaap in the form of badhat using bandisha words and divided into parts

  1. Using the pains of sthaayi

  2. Using the pains of antaraa
    (Muhadah is repeated after each part)

One-time repetition of the entire composition

Bol Baant i Layakaari


Finish with tihai (repeating the cheez part three times and reaching the sum)

There are two notational systems. One developed by Pt. Paluskar which is a little more elaborate and for the same reason complicated and difficult to use. And the other was developed by Pt. Bhatkhande which is somewhat easy to use. We will follow this markup system throughout the site.

Shuddha Swar (Normal Notes):Nema simbola za shuddha swar.
Example: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma

Komal Swar (ravine note):Shown by the small horizontal line below.


Teevra Swar (Ostre note):That is, Ma shown by the small vertical line at the top.

Mandra Saptak Swar (nota donje octave):Shown by the dot below.
Example:Indian classical music (12)

Madhya Saptak:No sign.
Example: Dad, Mom

Taar Saptak Swar (nota više oktave):Shown by the dot above.
Example:Indian classical music (13)

Crtica (crtica "-") :It is used to lengthen a note. One bar corresponds to one measure when played or sung with the taal.
Example: Sa - Ni - consists of a total of four beats.

Avagraha:Shown with "S". It is used for pauses in words.
Example: GoSSSvindaSSS

Chandra:Depicted with a crescent moon. Any number of notes can be inside the crescent to indicate that they are to be played in 1 measure.
Example:Indian classical music (14)

Of Swar (Grace Note):Write above the note on the left in small letters.
Example: UAgainga

means:Continuation of sound from one note to another.
Example:Indian classical music (15)

Notes in brackets:Equal to a short phrase of three or four. It is sung very quickly so that the notes blend together and sound like one note. The order of these notes is, one note after the parenthetical note, the note after, the parenthetical note, etc.
Example: (Sa)- ReSaNiSa

The principles of Indian classical music are well explained in these 40 principles compiled by Pt Bhatkhande.

  1. Shuddha Saptak (Osnovna skęčana) uzima se kao Bilawal Thaat.

  2. Svi raagi are divided based on nota u Aarohi i Avarohi kao Audav (Raag od 5 note), Shadav (Raag od 6 note), Sampoorna (Raag od 7 note)

  3. Raag cannot have less than 5 notes (out of 12 notes including komal and teevra)

  4. A combination of Audav, Shadav, Sampoorna in aaroha or avaroha makes 9 types of raag based on the number of notes in it.

  5. Svaki se raag takoli na thaatu i ima Aaroha, Avaroha, Vaadi, Samvaadi, Samay, Ras, Thaat.

  6. Samvaadi is always the fourth or fifth of the vaadis. If vaadi is in poorvanga, samvaadi will be in uttarang and vice versa.

  7. By changing the vaadi swar the morning raag can be changed to an evening raag.

  8. To emphasize the beauty of the raag, the vivaadi note can be used very rarely.

  9. Every raag has a vaadi. The raag is identified as poorva raag or uttar raag based on the vaadi note.

  10. Raags can be classified into 3 categories:

    • Raag s Komal Re, Komal Dha

    • Raags sa Shuddha Re, Shuddha Dha

    • Raags s Komal Ga, Komal Ni

    Usually u Pratah kaali sandhi prakash raagu, Re i Dha nikada ne dostaju. A u Sayam kaali sandhi prakash raag Ga i Ni nisu nisu nisu abhodni.

  11. Ma indicates whether the Raag is to be sung during the day or at night.

  12. Raags with Komal Ga, Ni are performed in the afternoon or midnight.

  13. Nakon Sandhiprakaash raaga mainly se izvode raagi s Re, Ma, Dha, Ni shuddha.

  14. Sa, Ma, Pa are important notes in the ragas of the 3rd prahara of day and night.

  15. Teevra Ma is found mostly in the Raags of the night. It is rarely found during daylight hours.

  16. If the vaadi is one of Sa, Ma, Pa, that raag can be sung all the time.

  17. Mom and dad cannot be absent from the raag at the same time.

  18. Each raag must consist of the note Sa.

  19. Two forms of the same note are not taken one after the other in a raag. However, there are exceptions to this rule such as Raag Lalit.

  20. The beauty of a raag is even greater if it is sung at a specific time.

  21. Teevra Ma and Komal Ni come together very few times.

  22. Raags featuring both Ma are similar in nature. Aaroha is different but avaroha is quite similar.

  23. In ragas sung in the 1st prahar of the night, which have both Ma, Shuddha Ma is taken in both aaroha as well as avaroha, but Teevra Ma is taken mostly in aaroha.

  24. In the ragas of the 1st prahara night, aarohi Ni and avarohi Ga are Vakra. It is not emphasized in avaroha either.

  25. In Indian classical music, unlike Karnataka classical music, swar is more important than Taal.

  26. Poorva raag shows its special characteristics in aaroha while uttar raag shows its special characteristics in avaroha.

  27. Svaki thaat može produkti poorva i uttar raags.

  28. In ragas of a serious, calm nature, Sa, Ma, Pa seem to have a prominent place. They are more effective in Mandra Saptak. While in ragas of a light mood, this is not so.

  29. Projoj ulaska iz jednog thaata u drugi thaat, izvode se Para Mel Praveshak raags (raags na granici dva thaata).

  30. The order usually followed is sandhi Prakash Raag then raags with Re Dha shuddha then raags with Ga, Ni komal.

  31. Sandhi Prakash Raag zaziva Karuna, Shant ras. Raags s Re, Ga, Dha shuddha zazivaju Shrungaar i Hassya ras. Raags s Komal Ga, Ni zazivaju Veer, Roudra Ras.

  32. Raagas having Komal Ni usually have Shuddha Ni in aaroha. For example Kaphi and Khamaj.

  33. When two to four notes are together, they cannot be called a raaga. They can be called taan at best.

  34. In a raag, notes can be prominent or minor (minor does not mean there are no notes).

  35. After twelve in the evening and twelve in the morning, Saturday, mom, dad begin to gradually gain importance.

  36. In raags sung in the afternoon, Aaroha either does not consist of Re and Dha or they are insignificant. In these Raags, Ga and Ni really shine with full brilliance.

  37. Raags with Sa, Ma, Pa as Vaadi are serious in nature.

  38. U svitanje raagi Komal Re i Komal Dha predilajuju, a raagi u sumrak imaju sajdrestost Shuddha Dha i Shuddha Ni.

  39. The combination of NiSa ReGa immediately establishes the Raag of dawn - dusk.

  40. Poorva raags are more elaborate in aaroha and uttar raags are more elaborate in avaroha.

Taal (or Beat) is very important in classical music. Some gharanas in Indian classical music represent swar pradhan gayaki (importance for sur) and some represent taal pradhan gayaki (importance for taal or rhythm). Indian classical music must have three instruments in addition to the singer, the tambora or taanpura, the tabla and the harmonium (or fifth). In this section we will look at how different compositions are placed on different taalas.

Taals consist of different number of beats starting from 6 beats to 16 (normal). I've seen other taalas with different beats, but these are the ones most commonly used. Before going into the details of the taal, I would like to define certain concepts in the taal so that the reader can understand the taal more easily.

Khand:Each interval between beats is called a khand.

Total (first measure):Shown by a cross under the bar.

Khali :Usually the rhythm in the middle of the taal. Marked 0 below the clock.

U Thalesu:Taali shows the beginning of every Khand except Sum and Khaali. The sum is taken as the first taali. The following taals are numbered and shown from 2 onwards.

The following are the most commonly used different types of taal. If the words are grouped together, it is considered one measure. Apart from the taals mentioned here, there are various others like dhumali, sulphact, ada chautaal, sool, addha etc.

Indian classical music (16)

Articles - Shruti in Indian Classical Music - Adwait Joshi - Adwait Joshi

Shruti is nothing but a minor variation of a note. It is essentially a frequency. Indian classical music has a total of 12 notes and 22 Shruti. In the ancient system of Shruti, Sa had four variants, Re had three, Ga had two, Ma had four, Pa had four, Dha had three and Ni had 2. Thus Shadja, Madhyam and Pancham have there are four Shruti each, Rishabh and Dhaivat three each, and Gandhar and Nishad two each. In the ancient Shruti system, a pure note was considered to be on its last Shruti. Therefore, the division was as follows



























Per year



But as you can see because of this arrangement of notes, Ga and Re (also Dha and Ni) come very close to each other and therefore Ga and Ni become komal. However, this type of system is not in use today.

The modern style places the notes on its first Shruti instead of the las. Therefore, the division was as follows



























Per year



Therefore, the notes are fairly evenly distributed and can be sung easily.

Articles - Why It's Difficult to Classify Hindi/Marathi Songs into Raags - Adwait Joshi - Adwait Joshi

Raags in Indian classical music are recognized by five distinctive characteristics. Aaroha (Ascension), Avaroha (Descent), Pakad (Flow), Vaadi (Most important note) and Samvaadi (Second most important note). Almost every raag will have all these five components associated with it, except for extremely rare raags where specific Aaroha and Avaroha are not defined. Each of these five characteristics is extremely important in its own right. Many raags have the same notes and may also have the same Aaroha and Avaroha, but what differentiates them is Pakad, Vaadi and Samvaadi. Because of this, it is very difficult to predict the sound of a light music song by just looking at the notes. There are numerous examples where you can see that a song consists of the notes of one particular raag, but belongs to another raag, due to the flow of notes (Pakad).

Another level of complexity is added to the equation because light music does not usually follow the rules of Indian classical music. He has the freedom to use notes that are not present in the raag or even the freedom to change Aaroha, Avaroha and Pakada. To give the song some spice, the composer may add additional notes. This not only beautifies the composition, but also makes it unique.

Another important aspect of light music is giving due importance to the lyrics. A composer would never want to compose a sad song in a very joyful romantic song. In order to maintain the beauty of the lyrics, it becomes imperative to maintain the mood of the song. In order to achieve this, the composer may have to change the words in the song several times, sometimes even in the same line.

Having said that, it is not uncommon to find some songs that follow all the rules and regulations of a particular country. In that case, the case for recognizing the content of such a song is open and closed.

Now it is clear why the song is difficult to classify. So the next time you hear a song and can't identify the raag, don't worry you're not alone. Just enjoy the music and composition.

Articles - Thumari, Dadra and Other Semi-Classical Forms in Indian Classical Music - Chaitanya Kunte - Chaitanya Kunte

Chaitanya Kunte is a disciple of Dr. Chaitanya Kunte. Around Thatta. Chaitanya has carved a niche for himself as a talented and respected young composer. His compositions cover a wide range of genres like Khayal, Tappa, Tarana, Chataranga, Sadra, Sargam Geet, Thumari, Dadra, Bhajan etc. In the following article, Chaitanya shares his knowledge about Thumari and other semi-classical forms of Indian music.

Thumari is an important and dominant genre in Indian music along with Dhrupad, Khayala and Tappa; as a well-received genre by all performers, musicologists and audiences. While keeping intact its unique character as a musical form, Thumari has its own idiom, scholastic tradition, aesthetics and mannerisms, which are in many ways different from Khayal and Tappa, but still have many points in common.

The Hindi word 'Thumari' is said to be derived from - 'Thumakna' which means attractive gait. Thus, the literary meaning is 'a song that has an attractive - rather sensual, course of melody and rhythm'. The content of sensuality is the main emotional basis in Thumari, although there are many Thumari compositions that depict a devotional aspect. An example of a thumri is Bari Umar Larkaiya Na Chhedo Saiyyan by Shobha GurtuIndian classical music (17)

Some musicologists speculate about traces of Thumari in its ancient form - 'Charchari Prabandh' or 'Hallisak Geeti'. But the available documentation about Thumari mentions its origin around the 16th-17th century. century AD. Thumari is said to have originated from the songs of the North Indian peoples, especially from the region between the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.

These songs are basically in regional dialects of Hindi like Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Mirzapuri, etc. But there are some Thumari compositions in other languages ​​like Rajasthani, Marathi and Bengali. The Thumari dialect is soft and gentle than any other form and allows the colloquial use of words to sound elastic, for example - 'Paani' becomes 'Paniyaa' and 'Piyaa' turns into 'Pia' or 'Piyaruwa', etc. .

Thumari mainly portrays different moods of love - harmony, separation and such ups and downs in the journey of a relationship. The main character in the lyrics of Thumaria is mostly a woman in love, and the illustration varies according to degrees of disposition such as age, social status, etc.

Musical characteristics:
In Thumari, verses ie 'Bol-ang' are very important. So, the musical elaboration of the word with different nuances is focused on the rendering, which is called "Bol Banaao". Thins includes Alap, sometimes with a mix of Raags to highlight the feeling. After singing the Sthayi and Antara in a slow tempo, there is usually a performance of the words in a fast progression on the Tabla called 'Laggi' when the singer twists the words with melodic variations called 'Bol-Baant'.

Thumari is mostly sung in so-called 'lighter' Raags like Khamaj, Kafi, Tilang, Desh, Tilak Kamod, Sorath, Piloo, Mand, Manjh-Khamaj, Jogia, Kalingda, Shiv-ranjani, Bhairavi etc. in which there is a wider space for emotional improvisation with subtleties in Alankaars, a mixture of Raags. So, many times, Thumari is found in the combination of some Dhunas, so called 'Jhilla' and 'Jangulaa'. But tradition has given us some Thumaris in ragas typical of Khayal, such as Bihag, Shahana, Sarang, Poorvi, Kalyan, Sohni, etc.

Taals for Thumari are Deepachandi, Addha, Ikwaai, Sitarkhani and some 'Bandhi Thumari' should be sung on Jhaptaal, also Ektaal. There are taals of smaller cycle, derived from folk music, namely Kehrawa, Dadra, Khemta, Chachar which are used for Dadra compositions, in fast tempo. Some capable Thumari singers also sing Thumari in the slow tempo of Kehrawa or Dadra.

Difference between Thumari and Dadra:
'Dadra' can be explained as a faster version of Thumari, roughly. Although the name suggests Taal Dadra, the compositions are set in taals other than dadra, such as Kehrwa and Chachar. An example of dadra is Savare Aijaiyo dr. Vasantrao DeshpandeIndian classical music (18)

Although Thumari and Dadra are always mentioned as twins, there is a certain difference -

  1. Thumari is usually sung at a slow tempo and Dadra is a bit faster.

  2. Thumari has a more elaborate, longer improvisational structure than the crisp, compact Dadra.

  3. Thumari lyrics generally have only two parts - Sthayi and Antara. On the contrary, Dadra is mostly decorated with more than one Atar.

  4. Thumari mostly talks exclusively about human love relationship. But songs in Dadra category like Kajri, Jhoola, Hori, Chaiti etc. mostly describe nature, seasonal variations and human feelings in that reference.

Patterns under the Dadra umbrella:

  • Kairi:The word 'Kajri' means 'black - rain clouds'. Kajri mainly explains the pathos of a separated lover during the rainy season. But the typical Mirzapuri Kajri also narrates joy in the rain. For example Shobha Gurtu - Tarsat Jiyara Hamar Naihar MeIndian classical music (19)

  • Sawan: Sawan is also a poem about the rainy season, but instead of explaining human feelings, it emphasizes the seasonal beauty. For example Shobha Gurtu - Sakhi Sawan AayoIndian classical music (20)

  • Jhoola:This is a swing song, sung by women in North India during the rainy season, depicting the romantic mood of Lord Krishna and Radha. For example Shobha Gurtu - Jhoola Dheerese JhulaoIndian classical music (21)

  • It is said:A song sung in the summer month, Chaitra, mainly depicts a girl asking her husband for a new wedding dress. In Chaiti the words 'Ho Raam' are used. For example Shobha Gurtu - Chaitar Chunariya Rang DeIndian classical music (22)

  • And:Hori se u Thumari stilu naziva 'Kacchi Hori' u kojem je opisan festival boja. e.g. Shobha Gurtu- Hori Khelan Kaise JaoonIndian classical music (23)

  • Barahmasa:It has description of all three seasons in twelve months in Indian script.

Thumari and Bhajan:
'Bhajan' means a devotional song, specially written by saint-poets like Meerabai, Kabir, Surdas, etc. Many Thumari singers sing Bhajans in the Thumari-Dadra format. Thus, it adds to the repertoire of the Thumari theme, not limiting it to the sensual realm. Compositions like 'Saiyya Nikas Gaye' or 'Barse Badariya Sawan Ki' are good examples of Thumari-Ang Bhajan.Indian classical music (24)

Thumari i Ghazal:
It is a form of Urdu-Farsi poetry with its own unique stylistic construction and subject matter mainly related to love relationship. Until the first half of the 20th century, the Ghazal was also often sung in the Thumari-Dadra format. But later, as a special style of rendering ghazals developed, this form was separated from Thumari's influence. On the other hand, there are some Dadras in which Shers (doubles) in Urdu poetry are performed between two Antars. For example - 'Chha Rahi kali Ghata' (Dadra na Desh).

Gharanas u Thumariju:Thumari is said to have originated from Purab ie. of the eastern Ganga-Yamuna river region in North India, hence called 'Purabi' or 'Banarasi' Thumari, which is generally sung in a slow tempo. Later, a new style emerged called 'Lucknowi Thumari' which gives more importance to fast tempo compositions, also called 'Pachhahi Thumari'. Another school of Thumari came out, it was 'Punjabi Thumari' which has an easier translation but imaginative and amazing catchy phrases.

Benaras Gharana - Girija Dev - Pilu - Preeti KiyeIndian classical music (25)
Punjab Gharana - Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan - Pilu - Kate Na Birha Ki RaatIndian classical music (26)

Articles - Print Preview - by Chaitanya Kunta - by Chaitanya Kunta

Chaitanya Kunte is a talented composer, harmonium player and scholar in the field of Hindustani music. He received a scholarship from the Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India for research work on Tappa. This article is derived from this research paper and is written exclusively for SwarGanga.

What is 'Tappa'?
Tappa is one of the main genres of musical tradition in India. It is believed that 'Tappa' originates from the musical talent of Ghulam Nabi Shori ie. Shori Miyan after the influence of the folk music of Punjab and Sindh. It is assumed that Tappa was originally a folk song of the camel drivers of the Punjab-Sindh region, so it contains lyrics in the Punjabi language. Basically the lyrical content describes the love and sorrow due to the separation of Hiro and Ranjha or any other lover. Raags expressing romance, light mood or pathos like Khamaj, Kafi, Bhairavi, Jhinjhoti, Tilang, Sindhura, Des and Taals like Punjabi, Pashto, Sitarkhani are popularly practiced for Tappa. The specialty of Tappa is the energetic Taan and uneven rhythmic emphasis.

O Shouri Miyan:
Ghulam Nabi Shori alias Shori Miyan, son of Ghulam Rasool Khan, was the court singer of Nabab Asaf Uddoullah of Lucknow (1776-1797) A common myth says that initiallytrainedin Khayal singing and had excellent command of 'Taan'. He was not happy with Khayal as he expressed his Taana singing skill. So he restlessly traveled through the Punjab, where he listened to the folk songs of the camel drivers, which he felt suited his style of singing. He composed 'Tappa' using different ornaments with Taana, Jamjam, Khatka, etc. In Shori Miyan's Tappas, in Antara we find his name as 'Shori'.

Tappa Gayaki:
The style of Tappa singing includes the intricate patterns of the typical 'Taan of Tappa'. In Taal Punjabi, also called 'Tappe ka theka', each cycle of Taal should have the principle of 'tension and release' followed while singing the Taan. The rule about improvising Tappa is, first show Thumri-ang in Alap, then proceed to Tanayyat, using words woven into a fast and uneven rhythmic accent. Tappa does not only involve the acrobatics of 'Tanayyat' but has an important aspect of emotional content produced through the appropriate pronunciation of the verses. 'Chhoot Taan' in Tappa has a typical Arabic character - it starts with a jerk, slows down and then speeds up again. Words are spoken with uneven tempo and emphasis, which is another feature of Tappa. Tappa gayaki also incorporates other decorations like jamjam, gitakari, khatka, murki, harakat. Tappa is a specialty of the Gwalior Gharana. There are two main styles of Tappa singing - Tappa in Gwalior Gharana and Benaras Gharana. There are a few structural differences such as the use of Taal and the style of improvisation, but the basic principles are the same.

One can notice the influence of Tappa gayaki on the Khayal performance of vocalists from Gwalior and Benaras gharana. Even the Patiyala gharana singers have a bit of Tappa in their Taan. The influence of Tappa on other genres culminated in the development of dual nature compositions such as Tap-Khayal, Tap-Tarana, Tap-Thumari etc.

Laawani, Keertan and Natya-sangeet in Maharashtra are also influenced by Tappa Gayaki. There are also several Marathi Tappas. Nidhubabu's Bengali Tappa and the influence of Tappa on Rabindra Sangeet also reflect the popularity of Tappa as a genre in the last century.

Tappa in the last century:
In the Gwalior school, Krishnarao Pandit and Rajabhaiyya Punchhawale flourished as important Tappa singers in the early decades of the 20th century. In the post-independence period, Balasaheb Puchhawale, Sharachchandra Arolkar, Jal Balaporia etc. were torch bearers in this tradition. Arolkar's disciples like Sharad Sathe and Neela Bhagwat kept the tradition intact. In the stream performance scenario, the most famous Tappa performer from Gwalior Gharana is, without a doubt, Malini Rajurkar!Indian classical music (27)In the 60's and 70's, when Tappa was not frequent in concerts, she popularized Tappa to the general public; and thus became the reason for awakening general curiosity about Tappa in later generations. Her excellence in Tappa is marked by her clear, bright Taana and some new techniques she used in exploring Tappa, such as Murcchana.

Pt. Kumar Gandharva, the famous maestro of Gwalior Gharana, had his own ideas about Tappa and presented a special concert - 'Thumarai-Tappa-Tarana Mehfil' in which he deliberately presented this thought of the interrelationship of these three forms. He also composed several tapas, in Punjabi and Malawian dialects. His disciples, Mukul Shivaputra and Vijay Sardeshmukh attest to the skill in depicting Tappa. Jitendra Abisheki studied Tappa in Gwalior and Banaras school and his student Vijay Koparkar is a successful Tappa singer in the contemporary scene. Popular artists like Arati Ankalikar, Asha Khadilkar and Manjiri AsnareIndian classical music (28)show their preference for Tappa during concert performances, which shows the growing popularity of Tappa. In the Benaras Gharana, after many Tappa masters in the early decades of the 20th century, such as Bade Ramdasji and Sidhheshwari Devi, notable singers who do full justice to Tappa are Girija DeviIndian classical music (29), Rajabhau Kogje, Ganesh Prasad Misra, Rajan i Sajan Misra.

Vrlo malo instrumentalista, poput Pt. Budhaditya Mukherji (Sitar) i Dr. Arawind Thatte (Harmonij)Indian classical music (30)performed Tappa on their instruments with much precision and command.

Text at


How much time is required to learn Indian classical music? ›

There is no such a time limit ,one can learn Indian Classical throughout his/her life , but you can expirience positive growth in your singing which is depending on your practice. To learn the basics it will take minimum of 3 months.

Is Indian classical music improvised? ›

Most of the music is improvised on the spot. Artists capable of exquisite hour-long improvised performances are not just gifted, they have also been studying and training for decades. And there are no shortcuts.

Why is Indian classical music so complex? ›

RHYTHM: Rhythm in Indian Classical Music is very complex, following the system of Tala developed over many centuries. The sense of meter, tempo, and subdivision exists as in Western music, but the meter is often asymmetrical and the rhythmic phrases much longer than Western music.

Is Indian classical music good for brain? ›

Carnatic music for an active mind

Carnatic music is filled with patterns, techniques, and improvisations. It is a good exercise for the brain. There is also a lot of unpredictability in it that makes listeners as well as learners think.

Can I learn classical singing at 25? ›

It's never too late to start singing! In fact, the human voice continues to mature throughout life, so students of any age can benefit from singing lessons.

Can I learn music after 25? ›

You are never too old to learn and create music. You can learn piano, guitar, violin, songwriting, or composition at any age. Science has proven time and time again that the human brain is capable of learning music and retaining new information anytime, no matter how old or young you are.

Does Indian classical music use chords? ›

There are no chords – only notes and the 'spaces between' them (or microtones, known as sruti) with each note played one at a time to maintain clarity and purity.

Why is Indian classical music so good? ›

Because of its contemplative, spiritual nature, Indian classical music is a solitary pursuit that focuses mainly on melodic development. In performance, rhythm also plays an important role, giving texture, sensuality, and a sense of purpose to melody.

Is Indian classical music complex? ›

Based upon ancient tradition, Indian classical music is characterized by intricate and subtle melodies and complex rhythms. To a novice listener, the complexity of Indian music might seem overwhelming, but knowing just a few basics can give you the tools to appreciate the art form's spectacular richness.

Why does Indian classical music make me cry? ›

Tears and chills – or “tingles” – on hearing music are a physiological response which activates the parasympathetic nervous system, as well as the reward-related brain regions of the brain. Studies have shown that around 25% of the population experience this reaction to music.

Which Indian classical music is best for studying? ›

Indian Classical Music For Studying
  • Ahir Bhairav. Pandit Brij Bhushan Kabra, Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia & Pandit Shivkumar Sharma.
  • Pilu Ragmala in Rupak. ...
  • Raga Mishra Shivaranjani. ...
  • Raga Mishra Kafi - Alap. ...
  • Dhun in Raga Mishra Pilu. ...
  • Raaga Kafi - Teentaal. ...
  • Rag Alam Bhairav. ...
  • Raag Mishra Shirvranjani Taal Deepchandi.

How can I sing better for Indian classical music? ›

7 Tips to Practice Hindustani Classical Music for Beginners
  1. Listen to Popular Artists. ...
  2. Focus on Your Scale. ...
  3. Practice Palta or Alankar. ...
  4. Develop a Specific Practice Routine. ...
  5. Concentrate on Personalized Vocal Training. ...
  6. Record Yourself While Singing. ...
  7. Value the Importance of Breathing Exercises.
May 6, 2022

Do intelligent people listen to classical? ›

Classical pieces tend to be cognitively more complex in rhythm and repetition, and intelligent people according to some studies may tend to understand and crave more complicated music and novel stimuli. Beethoven, for example, is far more complex than country or pop songs.

What classical music increases IQ? ›

You have probably heard of the Mozart effect. It's the idea that if children or even babies listen to music composed by Mozart they will become more intelligent.

Why does classical music increase IQ? ›

Echoing this, a study by Dr Kevin Labar says that music does have the power to improve intellectual performance and cognitive function, but not by raising the IQ. What actually happens is that the calming effect induced by classical music releases dopamine to spike pleasure.

Is 35 too old to learn music? ›

You're Never Too Old To Learn Music

No, you aren't too old to play music. It's an old myth. As an adult you even have many advantages over children in learning to play music.

At what age do classical musicians peak? ›

On average, Nobel Prize-winning writers produce their best work at age 45. Painters peak at age 42. And classical composers produce their most popular works at age 39.

How many years does it take to learn classical music? ›

If you want to be a professional classical performer, you're looking at a minimum of 10 to 15 years of concentrated study with a master teacher, and hours of practice every day.

Is 30 too late to start learning music? ›

The simple answer to this question is NO, you are never too old to learn music or to play an instrument.

Is 40 too old to learn piano? ›

Learning piano has no age limit. In fact, activities like learning piano can stimulate the brain, increasing the ability to recall information. There are physical benefits to learning piano as well.

Is 30 too old to get into music? ›

The truth is you are never too old to get started making music. The only exception is if you want to be a pop star and get signed to a major label. If that isn't you, then age is not a barrier at all to having success in the new music industry. So, when does age matter and when doesn't age matter?

Why is Indian music different? ›

What Makes Indian Music Unique? Indian music typically contains no harmony, can be completely improvised, and is rarely written down.

How many scales are there in Indian music? ›

Each of the seven svaras fall into one of two categories: • chal svar • achal svar. Chal svaras are those for which there are variants. These are re, ga, ma, dha and ni.

What frequency is Indian classical music? ›

The frequencies of the seven svaras are also given below: Sa 240 Hz, Re 270 Hz, Ga 300 Hz, Ma 320 Hz, Pa 360 Hz, Dha 400 Hz, and Ni 450 Hz, Sa 480 Hz (Taar Saptak) ........

Can classical music heal the body? ›

Specifically, patients who listened to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos and Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata demonstrated decreased heart rates and improved oxygen saturation, leading to quicker post-stress recovery. Classical music sounds pleasing to the ear, which in turn improves cognition in the brain.

Which raga is used in mind therapy? ›

Raga Malhar, Raga Sorath, Raga Jaijiwanti are used to get rid of mental stress. Further, Raga Sarang cures headache, Raga Darbari improves heart condition, Raga Pancham reduces stomach disorders and Raga Shivranjini enhances memory.

Is Indian music spiritual? ›

Because of its organic roots, the alignment of the raagas with the time of day, and its association with a gamut of emotions or “rasas”, Indian classical music sets the stage for spiritual and physical healing.

What is raga called in English? ›

/rāga/ mn. melody countable noun. A melody is a tune.

Is Indian classical music based on notes? ›

Notation system

Like Western classical music, it divides the octave into 12 semitones of which the 7 basic notes are, in ascending tonal order, Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni for Hindustani music and Sa Ri Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni for Carnatic music, similar to Western music's Do Re Mi Fa So La Si .

Is Indian music tonal? ›

Indian music is tonal and has many features in common with Western music. One of the most significant differences is that the primary means of expressing tonality in Indian music is through melody, whereas in Western music it is through harmony (the use of chords).

What are the 9 emotions in Indian music? ›

The art of music is based on the concept of Nava Rasa, or the Nine Sentiments - Shringara (romantic and erotic): Hasya (humorous): Karuna (pathetic): Raudra (anger): Veera (heroic): Bhayanaka (fearful): Vibhatsa (disgustful): Adbhuta (amazement): Shanta (peaceful).

What are the 9 emotions in Indian classical music? ›

This tradition has strongly influenced the Indian Classical Music (ICM) which proposes nine basic aesthetic emotions (rasas) that can be used to assess any aesthetic work: sringara (romantic), hasya (happy), karuna (sad), raudra (anger), veera (exciting), bhayanaka (fear), bibhatsa (odious), adbhuta (wonder) and santa ...

Which raga is best for anxiety? ›

The present study found that Bilahari Raga in Carnatic music has a prominent effect in reducing anxiety and somatic symptom presentation, increasing sleep quality, and improving the overall mental health of caregivers.

Which raga is best for brain? ›

ABSTRACT: Ragas like khamaj and pooriya are found to help in defusing mental tension, particularly in the case of hysterics. Raga malhar Pacifies anger, excessive mental, excitement & mental instability.

How many levels are there in Indian classical music? ›

There are 7 levels of classical music exams in India, specifically singing exams, that every singing student has to complete to be certified as a graded singer in India.

Can you classically train yourself to sing? ›

Truly, almost anyone can learn to sing, or at least to sing better. While it helps to have a voice teacher, not everyone can afford voice lessons and there might also not be a good teacher in your area who is available. Of course, there are many well-known singers who were self-taught.

What is Indian singing style called? ›

Hindustani singing, a North Indian traditional style of singing, and classical singing, such as the music of Puccini, Mozart and Wagner, vary greatly in technique and sound.

Which language has best music in India? ›

Music is produced in India in almost every regional language including. The popularity of the Punjabi music business, on the other hand, is unmatched. Punjabi music is the most popular regional music and is comparable to Hindi music in terms of popularity.

What music do high IQ people listen to? ›

The result was that students who scored higher in intelligence were associated with an ear for wordless music genres like big band, classical, and ambient or chill electronica.

What music has the highest IQ? ›

A preference for instrumental music indicates higher intelligence, research finds. People who like ambient music, smooth jazz, film soundtracks, classical music and similar genres without vocals tend to have higher IQs.

Do high IQ people like classical music? ›

A study by the university of Vienna showed that people with higher levels of intelligence and verbal ability were more likely to prefer classical music, compared to people with lower levels of intelligence.

What was Beethoven's IQ? ›

Beethoven, by comparison, fell in the middle of the pack, with a score between 135 and 140, or smart enough to join Mensa. Still, I calculated the correlation between estimated IQ and eminence for just these 11 composers to be .

What percentage of Americans like classical music? ›

In 2020, 17% of American adults reported that classical music was their favorite type of music. This statistic is a telling indication of the popularity of classical music among American adults.

What was Bach's IQ? ›

165. That's the number music scholars and scientists have landed upon for their best guess as to J.S. Bach's IQ. While we can't measure exactly what Johann Sebastian Bach's IQ was, the IQ score that is widely accepted amongst studies is 165.

What does it mean if someone likes classical music? ›

Being a fan of classical music means you have a personality that loves complex symphonies and compositions. You can be a great creative mind, and you see listening to music as a theatrical experience. A trait you share with metal fans, by the way.

Which classical composer has the highest IQ? ›

Mozart, the legendary Austrian composer, is believed to have the highest IQ ever.

Is classical music actually good for your brain? ›

Researchers think the complexity of classical music is what primes the brain to solve spatial problems more quickly. So listening to classical music may have different effects on the brain than listening to other types of music. This doesn't mean that other types of music aren't good.

How many years it will take to learn classical music? ›

If you want to be a professional classical performer, you're looking at a minimum of 10 to 15 years of concentrated study with a master teacher, and hours of practice every day.

How long will it take to learn Carnatic music? ›

How long does it take to learn Carnatic Music? Generally, a student with good grasping abilities, regular practice and right attitude will take around 6 months to 'perfect' these various exercises.

Which Indian classical instrument is easy to learn? ›

Whether you want to play classical music or folk music, it will not be a bad idea to learn dholak. This handmade wooden dholak can be a great option if you are looking for classical musical instruments for beginners.

How is Indian classical music taught and learned? ›

Indian classical music is generally passed down in an oral tradition where the student would spend many years with their 'guru', developing a very special, spiritual bond, imbibing all aspects of the music along with philosophical and moral principles that shape them for life.

Does classical music develop your brain? ›

Researchers think the complexity of classical music is what primes the brain to solve spatial problems more quickly. So listening to classical music may have different effects on the brain than listening to other types of music. This doesn't mean that other types of music aren't good.

Does classical music actually help you study? ›

It can increase focus

According to a 2007 study, music — classical music, specifically — can help your brain absorb and interpret new information more easily. Your brain processes the abundance of information it receives from the world around you by separating it into smaller segments.

Can I learn Carnatic music at 50? ›

Definitely ! Age & and prior knowledge are not critical factors when it comes to start learning Carnatic music.

Can I learn Carnatic singing at 30? ›

There is not age to learn music and this the right course for you if you are are interested in learning the basics of Carnatic music.

Is Carnatic harder than Hindustani? ›

While Carnatic music lays a lot of emphasis on composition and lyrics, Hindustani lays a lot of stress on the plain notes (swaras). The notes are long-drawn in Hindustani music and are held for a longer time than in Carnatic music. Carnatic uses a lot of oscillations (gamaka/gamakam) in between the notes.

What is the hardest Indian instrument to learn? ›

Flute is the most difficult instrument to play: Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia.

What is the hardest classical instrument to learn? ›

The violin is also widely regarded as one of the most difficult instruments to learn. One of the reasons behind this is that there are no guides on the violin for finger placement.

Which is the hardest Indian classical instrument to play? ›

The lack of frets and the tension of the strings make the sarod a very demanding instrument to play, as the strings must be pressed hard against the fingerboard.


1. Classical Indian Music
(Traditional Music Channel)
2. Indian Sitar Instrumental Music 10 Hours
(Relax Cafe Music)
3. Morning Meditation Ragas On Sitar - Peaceful Music for Relaxation - B. Sivaramakrishna Rao
(Geethanjali - Indian Classical Music)
4. Raga Bhupali Flute Classical Indian Flute Music Relaxation Meditation Raag Evening Raga
(Instrumental Ambient Music)
5. Ravi Shankar - The Spirit of India (full album)
6. Anthology Of Indian Classical Music (UNESCO, 1955)
(demarestfarmer’s OOP Sprouts)


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